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Ireland: Republic Specimen Penny 1968 SP64 Red PCGS,...
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Ireland: Republic Specimen Penny 1968 SP64 Red PCGS,...
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Welcome Guest! Need help? Got a question? Inherit some coins? Our coin forum is completely free! Register Now! Report this Post to the Staff. New a closer view to see why it is under weight. Richard S. Cooper Some have asked about my images I use and I'm glad to say, you can now you can see the DVD in sections on youtube: 1. Intro, older coins, toned coins 2.
Doubled dies 3. Die events, One of a kind errors 4. So called errors, Coin information 5. Stuck on a VERY slightly underweight planchet. Maximum it could be off is. View Last New Topics. View Last Active Topics. Disclaimer: While a tremendous amount of effort goes into ensuring the accuracy of the information contained in this site, Coin Community assumes no liability for errors.
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Spence Moderator United States Posts. Gary Schmidt Report this Post to the Staff.Searching pocket change for error coins can be fun and profitable, but searching through rolls of uncirculated coins can sometimes turn up real treasure!
Tremonti sent the coin to PCGS for grading and encapsulation. Experts estimate that the number of known specimens of this S doubled die penny is only about 40 to 50 coins.
Potter also says that when Tremonti first called him, he was very skeptical. I advised him of this, but he shrugged it off as not being what he found. As I talked to him further, he seemed to be knowledgeable on the subject.
It seemed that for once there was a possibility that one of the folks making the common claim of finding a S doubled die cent might have done so. To my surprise, the coin turned out to be a beautiful, brilliant uncirculated example of this rare variety. The S doubled die cent has a notorious history. Around the time of its discovery ina pair of scammers had tried to cash in by making counterfeit doubled die cents. According to Potter, it was just a bizarre coincidence that forgers happened to be making fake doubled die pennies at the same time that a genuine mint error emerged with the same date!
Secret Service agents immediately seized it, believing that it was one of the counterfeit coins. The Secret Service later returned the coin to him as genuine. The U. It took the U. Treasury Department some time to sort the mess out and return the genuine specimens to their owners. Unfortunately, the U. Treasury Department reportedly destroyed a few genuine S pennies as counterfeits. As often happens when a particular coin gets a lot of press coverage, the demand intensifies, and the coin rises in value.
To this day, the major S doubled die obverse cent drives higher prices at auction than its contemporaries which display comparable doubling, such as the major doubled die obverse cent although the S is rarer. Whether you are checking your pocket change or searching through rolls of original bank wrapped coins, there are still errors to be found. This coin is tied with one other specimen for MS Red. Its current whereabouts are unknown.
Regardless of this coin's condition, it will always sell for top dollar whenever it comes to an auction. Note : Ken Potter provided additional information about the source of the lucky roll of coins. It seems Tremonti doesn't recall when or where he bought the roll.
Related Topics. Coin Collecting. Read More.PCGS was founded in by David Hall and a group of dealers who all had a common goal to make buying certified coins sight-unseen easy.
They accomplished this by sealing and guaranteeing the coin in the holder was the grade given. If the coin was found to be over-graded, then the company would buy back the slab at the retail price the customer paid. The idea was popular and PCGS quickly rose to be the top grading service in the 's and still is among the top three today.
Their slabs have undergone many changes over the years as can be seen by the numerous sample slabs below. The coin is a Roosevelt dime and is graded MS with the word Sample below. This is the scarcer type of the first two types. This is the same scarce type of slab and label as PCGS sample slab 1, but this one has a proof dime inside. You can tell a difference even by a scan in the quality of the coin, and this type surfaced on ebay in Should be about as hard to locate as PCGS sample slab 1.
Known as the rattlerthe early PCGS sample slab holders were used from to and are still seen sometimes today. This sample was given out at most of the shows during this time period to acquaint collectors with their slab. This one is the same as PCGS sample slab 2, except it has a proof coin inside instead of a mint state example.
PCGS Sample Slabs
The mint state examples are easily found, but these are not. Within a couple of years, a dealer got the bright idea to counterfeit the PCGS slab and make his own slabbed coins. It worked for a little bit, but he was soon caught. It brought too the attention of PCGS sample slab and the other services that better security had to be used on their slabs so that if someone tampered with a slab, it could easily be detected. The newer slab had an outer ring and a hologram on the back. The label was printed with thousands of small dots on a dot matrix printer.
The doily label slab as we call it today was born but did not last for long. Made from August of through January offew of these samples survive. Removing the doily and placing a green label was the next step in the PCGS sample slab's evolution. The sharp outer rim was still used on this example. All samples from this time period either have a MS or MS Roosevelt dime inside although the dates vary.Designed in by Victor D.
Brenner, the Lincoln Cent was embraced by consumers across the country because of its pleasing design.
1968-S 1C MS67+ Red PCGS....
After a 50 year run with the reverse of the coin featuring two wheat ears, the Lincoln Penny got an update in from designer Frank Gasparro. Composition changes to the Lincoln cent happened twice -- once in and again in Inthe United States government started making pennies out of steel to help save copper for the war effort. Afterpennies were minted with a cheaper composition, If you want to learn more about the Lincoln Memorial penny or other rare and collectible cents, be sure to check out our Ultimate Guide to Collectible Pennies.
Unlike most Lincoln Memorial pennies that were minted in either the Philadelphia or Denver mints, the S pennies were minted on the west coast at the San Francisco mint. Since the San Francisco mint was focused on creating proof-quality coins of all denominations, a low amount of S Lincoln Memorial Pennies intended for circulation were minted.
A reportedexamples were struck for circulation in A little over 3 million proof S Lincoln Memorial cents were struck. The main difference between a proof and non-proof strike is that proofs appear to have an almost mirror-like finish, while regular strikes have a duller appearance. Image Source Flickr user Mark Morgan.
Collectors have identified an error that appears on very few S Lincoln Memorial pennies. This error can potentially make the coin worth a significant amount of money, depending on strike type and severity of the error. Referred to as a Doubled Die errorthis error occurs when a coin is struck from a die that has part of the image doubled on it, leading some elements to appear to overlap themselves.
Sometimes this error results in very subtle doubling, while on other occasions the doubling can be quite strong and can be seen from a distance. For the case of the S Lincoln Memorial Penny, the doubling can be found on the obverse of the coin and is referred to as doubled die obverse, or DDO.
Specifically, this error can be seen in the date, as well as the mint mark. This error can be found on both the regular and proof strikes but is more commonly found on circulation strikes. Since this type of error can not easily be seen from far away, some form of magnification is required to view the error.
Since mint errors for any denomination of coins are very rare, the value is normally much higher than a regularly struck coin without an error. True Doubled Die errors are normally highly sought after by collectors, more than other types of errors. Due to the scarcity of the S Doubled Die Obverse Lincoln Memorial cents, the prices are normally high but depend on collector demand.
Proof S DDOs are worth much more due to their lower mintage and more regulated minting process. Higher grade Proof strikes can be worth significantly more. The prices stated above are only approximate, as these coins do not come on the market often. Remember, these errors are extremely rare and not often found in circulation. Any suspected S DDO should be examined by a reputable coin dealer or grading company.
You must be logged in to post a comment. This post may contain affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases. You can read the full disclosure here. Leave a Comment Cancel reply You must be logged in to post a comment.Statistics can be said to have begun in ancient civilization, going back at least to the 5th century BC, but it was not until the 18th century that it started to draw more heavily from calculus and probability theory.
While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty and decision making in the face of uncertainty. Mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all persons living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal".
Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population (an operation called census). This may be organized by governmental statistical institutes. Descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the population data. Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data types (like income), while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data (like race). When a census is not feasible, a chosen subset of the population called a sample is studied.
Once a sample that is representative of the population is determined, data is collected for the sample members in an observational or experimental setting. Again, descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the sample data. However, the drawing of the sample has been subject to an element of randomness, hence the established numerical descriptors from the sample are also due to uncertainty. To still draw meaningful conclusions about the entire population, inferential statistics is needed.
It uses patterns in the sample data to draw inferences about the population represented, accounting for randomness. When full census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect sample data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Statistics itself also provides tools for prediction and forecasting through statistical models. To use a sample as a guide to an entire population, it is important that it truly represents the overall population.
Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. A major problem lies in determining the extent that the sample chosen is actually representative. Statistics offers methods to estimate and correct for any bias within the sample and data collection procedures. There are also methods of experimental design for experiments that can lessen these issues at the outset of a study, strengthening its capability to discern truths about the population.
Sampling theory is part of the mathematical discipline of probability theory. Probability is used in mathematical statistics to study the sampling distributions of sample statistics and, more generally, the properties of statistical procedures. The use of any statistical method is valid when the system or population under consideration satisfies the assumptions of the method.
The difference in point of view between classic probability theory and sampling theory is, roughly, that probability theory starts from the given parameters of a total population to deduce probabilities that pertain to samples. Statistical inference, however, moves in the opposite directioninductively inferring from samples to the parameters of a larger or total population. A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality, and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on dependent variables.
There are two major types of causal statistical studies: experimental studies and observational studies. In both types of studies, the effect of differences of an independent variable (or variables) on the behavior of the dependent variable are observed. The difference between the two types lies in how the study is actually conducted. Each can be very effective.